မေထရ္ျမတ္တုိ႔ ႐ုပ္ပုံလႊာ (ေမွာ္ဘီၿမိဳ႕၊ သာသနာ့၀န္ေဆာင္ဆရာေတာ္)


on Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Buddhist Psychotherapy
ME26  08-04-2011 (4:00 to 5:00)
(Class Notes Only)
Literature on the 'Four Nutrients (Nutriments) ', 'food', is used in the concrete sense as material food and as such it belongs to derived corporeality.In the figurative sense, as 'foundation' or condition, it is one of the twenty four conditions (paccaya) and is used to denote four kinds of nutrient, which are material and mental:
     1. Kabalinkārāhāra (material food),
     2. Phassāhāra (‘sensorial and mental’ impression),
     3. Mano-sañcetanāhāra (mental volition),
     4. Viññānāhāra (consciousness).
Material food feeds the eightfold corporeality having nutrient essence as its eight factor (i.e. the solid, liquid, heat, motion, colour, odour, the taste and nutrient essence; rūpakalāpa). Sensorial and mental impression is a condition for the three kinds of feeling (agreeable, disagreeable and indifferent).Mental volition (karma) feeds rebirth; paticcasamuppāda.

Consciousness feeds mind and corporeality (nāma - rūpa) at the moment of conception". Rupa matter- form, material body (physical phenomenon), shape, corporeality. The basic meaning of this word is "appearance" or "form." It is used, however, in a number of different contexts, taking on different shades of meaning in each. In lists of the objects of the senses, it is given as the object of the sense of sight. As one of the khandhā, it refers to physical phenomena or sensations. This is also the meaning it carries when opposed to nāma, or mental phenomena.

Material; Apart from citta and cetasika which are realities, there is another reality. Rupa are always influenced by one or more of four causes namely kamma, citta, utu, and ahara. Rupa are always changing as citta and cetasika, they are relatively slower than nama dhamma. Rupa can never know anything. But rupa serve various functions in connection with nama dhamma citta and cetasika. In terms of their intrinsic character, there are twenty eight separate paramattha rupa.

We are guilty of all four of the Nutrients stated. These are explained as being necessary for existence but all are traps of cravings and desire. The Kabalinkārāhāra is translated as ordinary material food, if we will be wanting the one which we feel tastes. The Phassāhāra is contact with the outside world. This is inescapable and influential at the same time, “Every bit of our stream of consciousness is taken over by society and the reaction they have to we, which is easily recognized as selfish and greedy behaviour. 
Viññānāhāra is simple consciousness of what is around us. From my understanding, what is around us, is temptation, evil. Manosañcetanāhāra, the mental violation, the thoughts that creep into our mind about anything and everything. These are the thoughts, that are never our understanding of the Second Noble Truth has greatly increased, and I feel that this is an experience all go through. The entire concept of desire is inescapable in our day and time, and that is something that we as spiritual beings have to deal with.

According to the ‘Dhammapada’; while residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse, with reference to King Pasenadi of Kosala. One day the King went to the monastery to pay homage to the Buddha soon after having a heavy meal. The King was in the habit of taking one-quarter basketful cooked rice and meat curry. While he was in the presence of the Buddha, the King felt so drowsy that he kept on nodding and could hardly keep himself awake. Then he said to the Buddha, “Venerable sir! I have been in great discomfort since I have taken my meal.” To him the Buddha replied “Yes, O king! Gluttons do suffer in this manner.”

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
     "Middhī ỵadā hoti mahagghaso ca, niddāyitā samparivattasāyī.
      mahāvarāhova nivāpapuṭṭho, punappunaṁ gabbhamupeti mando."(325)
“The stupid one, who is lazy, gluttonous , and drowsy, who just wallows like a well-fed pig, is subject to repeated rebirths.”
It is more tasty, more clear and drives the point home very strongly. The middha means very drowsy; middhī yadā hoti mahāggaso ca - one feels very sleepy, having eaten a great deal of food; niddāyitā samparivattasāyī - sleeping, tossing in bed, turning in the bed, back and forth; mahā varāho va nivāpa puṭṭho - like a very big pig in the mud, punappunaṃ gabbha mupeti mando - a fool will go back and forth in life and gabbhaṃ upeti mean comes to life, comes to birth, again and again. So, one who eats a lot until his belly is full, of course, after that feels very sleepy, and keeps sleeping, tossing, turning back and forth in the bed, twisting because his belly is so full, and falls asleep, and loves to sleep. And that is another mental bewilderment called wilderness in the mind.

"After hearing the discourse the King, having understood the message, gradually the amount of food he took. As a result, he become much more active and alert and therefore also happy.

In the paccavekkhanā Buddha said, “Patisankhā yonīso piñdapātaṁ patisevāmī- Considering it thoughtfully, I use alms food; Neva davāya na madāya na mandanāya na vibhῡsanāya- Not playfully, nor for intoxication, nor for putting on bulk, nor for beautification;

Yāva deva imassa kāyassa thītīyā yāpanāya vihiṁsuparatiyā brahmacariyānuggahāya - but simply for the survival and continuance of this body, for ending its afflictions, for the support of the holy life; Itī purañca vedanam patihankhāmi navañca vedanam na uppadessāmi- thus I will destroy old feelings of hunger and not create new feelings from overeating- Yatrā ca me bhavissati anavajjatā ca phāsu-viharo cāti- I will maintain myself, be blameless and live in comfort.”
by Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


Buddhist Psychotherapy
ME26  01-04-2011       (4:00 to 5:00)
(Class Notes Only)
The Buddhism accepts the necessity of the wealth and the man cannot live without any wealth. The primary thing of living being is food. All living beings depend on food (Sabbhe sattā ahara thitikā). The poverty is considered as a suffering that we avoided (Daliddiyaṁ bhikkhave dukkhaṁ).

The Buddha taught a practical method to help mankind escape from the bonds of suffering (The Eightfold Noble Path). He's theme was the same: sīla (morality), samādhi control of the mind (samatha), and pañña (purification of the mind by wisdom). The Silas build concentration (Samadhi) easily, then insight knowledge arises seeing Rūpa (corporeality or nature of bodies) and Nāma (mind or mentality) as they really are. It should be known that the meditator can discern Rūpa.“In the Theravada Abhidhamma, rūpa is analyzed into 28 states as far as the Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha is concerned.”

Buddhism always points out the way to remove suffering. Man with poverty gives raise more difficulties to live long. According to Buddhism, if a man afflicted with poverty, he is led to do unrighteous things such as killing(pāṇatipāta), stealing(adinnādāna), struggling, and fighting and so on. The unwholesome (akusala) actions are mentioned in the sutta as follows:

Physical (body) is Killing living beings , stealing others things and unlawful engagement in sensual pleasures, Verbal is Lying, slandering, using rough words and gossiping. These are related to the physical, verbal and mental behavior of people.

Cakkavattisisihanada Sutta says, “When the wealth is not produced, the poverty may be developed; when the poverty developed, the stealing may be developed; when stealing developed, the production of weapon may be developed; when the producing of weapon developed, the fighting and killing may be developed”. The Buddhism always advised not to engage in bad activities. Therefore the richness of the wealth is necessary to prevent those activities.

We might have an expanded self-representation, but we certainly do not through such experiences wholly abandon the process of identification with self-representation; nor do we lose a metaphysical self, which from the Buddhist perspective we do not have to begin with.

Furthermore, ego functions that constitute the empirical or psychologically functioning self are not lost. Let’s for the moment accept that pride (māna), the sense, “the eye(cakkhu), the ear(sota), the nose(ghāṇa), the tongue(jivhā) and the body(kāya),” that I am higher, lower, or simply, “am” is a mental function that is sometimes present and sometimes absent from our consciousness(viññnāṇa).

The states may be instances when the mental function of māna is not operative; it is temporarily dispelled (tadanga-pahāna). We continue to struggle in the west to move beyond earlier models that pathologized non-ordinary states. Our inquiry would be more productive if we focused on discriminating clearly how spiritual states may retain ordinary functions yet complement these functions with other qualities.

The next form has to do with the meditative absorptions, that is, states of concentration during which the sense of self (māna) is absent, technically indentified as abandoned through suppression (vikkhambana-pahāna){pahana is discussion ‘pa + hana’}, The last form is insight realization. There actually are a variety states here: states in the higher stages of insight, states related to path and fruition consciousness, and those following full realization.

In particular, during and succeeding full enlightenment, identification with a particular sense of self (māna) would be given up through eradication (samuccheda-pahāna) leaving the practitioner free of such identification. Once meditators have embarked on practice and become familiar with the orientation of Buddhist inquiry, they may from time to time have variety meditative experiences in and out of meditation that will reflect ever-deepening realization, cognitive and affective, and culminate in dis-identification with the core sense of self. However, opens a valuable window when he points out that even in traditional psychotherapy, there are unintended and unnoticed moments of freedom from selfrepresentation.

This dissolution makes it possible for distorted images of oneself to change when they emerge in consciousness. The practitioner can be effectively harnessed to a task that Buddhism shares with other spiritual traditions, that of reducing identification with and attachment to our self-representations.

Particularly if she or he is in dialogue, or engaged in verbal self-reflection in the company of someone who can mirror, hold, or indentify spiritual states such as spaciousness, clarity or presence.
by Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


Buddhist Psychotherapy
ME26  24-03-2011    (4:00 to 5:00)
(Class Notes Only)
What is Psychotherapy?
Psychotherapy is an interactive process between a person and a qualified mental health professional (psychiatrist, psychologist, etc,). Seeking help for mental, emotional, spiritual or relationship issues can be difficult, you want to be sure you have the right "mental health professional" to oversee you care, so you can take control of any dilemmas in your life.

Buddhist psychotherapy has to be a science of mind which also studies the specific Buddhist approaches to mind. Therefore it has to hold good against all the criteria of science, such as methodological reliability of procedures, consistency of theoretical statements, etc. The Buddhist psychology became very fashionable towards the end of the twentieth century.

Buddhist psychology in an inclusive way us to view the various specifically Buddhist practices of preaching, teaching and counseling from a psychotherapeutic standpoint. Buddhist psychological knowledge under the following headings:
1. Adhisīlasikkhā - control of performance serves as a starting point for all procedures;
2. Adhicittasikkhā - purification of mind by means of meditation removes the defilements
    of greed and hate, which otherwise distort consciousness and invalidate knowledge.
3. Adhipaññasikkhā- transcendence through wisdom aims at an individually experienced
    realization of happiness and peace.
Buddha's Dhamma includes ethics; it cannot be regarded as some philosophical system. We continuous practice of the Dhamma. The practice of the Buddha's Dhamma is most comprehensively defined through the paradigm of the Four Noble Truths, (this Noble Eightfold Path.) The Buddha’s first sermon on setting the Wheel of the Dhamma (the Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta), is on the ground of avoidance of two extremes of Sassatavada and Ucchedavada. The Buddha explained the Dhamma in the following words;
     1. Dukkha-ariyasaccā -This is suffering,
     2. Samudaya-ariyasaccā- This is the origin of suffering, is attachment,
     3. Nirodha-ariyasaccā - This is the cessation of suffering, is attainable,
     4. Magga-ariyasaccā -This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.
The Buddha showed the newly discovered path to emancipation, "Ariya atthangikamagga" the Noble Eightfold Path or "Majjhima patipadā" the Middle Path. This avoids the two extremes of sensual indulgence and self-mortification. Middle Path is defined in the same sermon as "without entering into either extreme" (Ubho ante anupagamma.) These Eightfold Path as follows;
     1. Right Understanding (Sammā dithi)
     2. Right Thought (Sammā sankappa)
     3. Right Speech (Sammā vācā)
     4. Right Action (Sammā kammanta)
     5. Right Livelihood (Sammā ājīva)
     6. Right Effort (Sammā vāyama)
     7. Right Mindfulness (Sammā sati)
     8. Right Corcentration (Sammā samādhi)
The early Buddhist discourses referred to the mutual opposition between the two Sassatavāda (eternalism) and Ucchedavāda (annihilationism) views. Sassatvāda emphasizes the duality between the soul and the body. Deliverance of the soul, its perpetuation in a state of eternal bliss, thus requires the mortification of the flesh, represented in the Buddhist texts as Attakilamathānuyoga (self-mortification) which led to variety of ascetic practices during the time of the Buddha.

Ucchedavāda (Materialism) believes that 'man is a pure product of the earth awaiting annihilation at death. His aim in this temporary life thus cannot be the rejection of sense - pleasures in the pursuit of a higher spiritual ideal which is described in the Buddhist tents as Kāmasukhalikānuyoga (sensual gratification). Thus, these two represent the practical aspects of the two theories of Sassatavāda and Ucchedavāda.

According to the Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta, Right understanding (sammā dithi) of the First Noble Truth (effect) leads to the eradication (pahātabba) of craving. The Second Noble Truth (cause) thus deals with the mental attitude of the ordinary man towards the external objects of sense. The Third Noble Truth (effect) is that there may be a complete cessation of suffering possible, which is Nibbāna, the ultimate good of Buddhists.

This Nibbāna is to be comprehended (Sacchikātabba) by the mental eye by renouncing all attachment to the external world. This First Truth of suffering which depends on this so called being and various aspects of life, is to be carefully perceived, analyzed and examined (pariññeyya). This Third Noble Truth has to be realized by developing (bhāvetabba) the Noble Eight fold Path (ariya atthangika magga). This unique path is the only straight way to Nibbāna.
by Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


Buddhist Psychotherapy
ME26  19-03-2011      (4:00 to 5:00)
(Class Notes Only)
The Vipassanā(Pañña) meditation research into the application of Vipassana in daily life. The Enlightened One wandered from place to place, teaching the Dhamma in villages and towns out of infinite love and compassion. The Buddha taught a practical method to help mankind escape from the bonds of suffering: the Eightfold Noble Path (Ekāyano ayaṃmaggo).

He's theme was the same: sīla (morality), samādhi control of the mind (samatha), and pañña (purification of the mind by wisdom). He declared: Dhamma is universal. Dhamma is the law of nature. He taught that every person must discover for himself what is conducive to his own good and welfare, and the good and welfare of others. He gave to humanity its first charter of freedom, gave the possibility of a way out. The door to freedom opened. To practice insight meditation in accordance with the four foundations of mindfulness is the only way to purify the mind of practitioners. It leads them to the cessation of suffering and the attainment of Nibbana. Practitioners must first purify their Silas. The Silas build concentration (Samadhi) easily, then insight knowledge arises seeing Rūpa (corporeality or nature of bodies) and Nāma (mind or mentality) as they really are. It should be known that the meditator can discern Rūpa and has entered Rupapariccheda- ñana.

In the early teaching of the Buddha, the empirical word is analyzed, as clearly stated in the Khandhavagga Samyutta, is based on the truths of :
          rūpa (physical phenomenon),
          vedanā (feeling),
          saññā (perception),
          saṅkhāra (mental fashionings)
          viññāna (consciousness).
These five groups of existence, life’s basic factors. While rūpa refers to the physical reality and the other four groups refer to the mental reality. While the meditator is being mindful of his hand, his foot stretching or bending, his body dropping to sit down or supporting his body to stand up, these features of movement arise from many small combined movements. Buddhist morality distinguishes healthy, right and moral actions from those that are unhealthy, wrong and immoral action. In the Pali canon, we find many moral concepts which play an important role in the moral life of a Buddhist even today.

The terms Kusala (wholesome) and puñña (merit) are the most important of these. These Kusala actions lead to nirvāṇa, Akusala (unwholesome) actions make one deviate from the path of liberation. The Buddha once said that one becomes endowed with right vision (sammā diṭṭhi) through the knowledge of both wholesome and unwholesome actions and their roots. He recommends the wiping out of akusala through kusala ones, since such eradication brings happiness.

Buddhism recommendes the five precepts (pañca sila) for lay Buddhists and other morally higher precepts for monks, all these moral virtues, in one way or another. The five precepts, for example are common to many religious traditions.Since Buddhism recognizes the worth of all living beings, Buddhist precepts include all livings beings withing their scope.

When one practices the meditation on living kindness (mettā), one has to develop loving kindness to all beings (sabbē sattā bhavantu sukhitattā). In the Metta Sutta of the Suttanipāta this universal loving kindness is highlighted as follows: may all beings be happy and secure; may their minds be contented etc,. Let one’s thoughts of boundless love pervade trained in sīla, one is in a good position to train one’s mind (citta).

The second stage is samādhi (concentration) which includes three components: right effort (sammā vāyāma). Right mindfulness (sammāsati) and right concentration (sammā samādhi).These three elements train one’s mind to a state of samādhi. The third stage of the gradual path is wisdom (pañña) which includes right view (sammā diṭtṭhi) and right thoughts (sammā saṃkappa). Wisdom enables one to see reality as it is (yathābhūta). Wisdom arises only in a concentrated mind (samādhi citta). Thus, through a gradual process of training (anupubbasikkhā), working out (anupubbakiriyā), and practice (anupubbapaṭipadā), the spiritual seeker reaches moral perfection. On one occasion, the Buddha explains how morality leads one to nirvāṇa.

In this case the the spiritual path in this world and the ultimate goal are interconnected and interrelated within the process of leading the spiritual seeker to moral perfection. It is important to examine the way Buddhism explains the relatioship between moral actions and the nature of the internal mental process. Early Buddhism offers a causal and psychologycal analysis both of the external behavior of the individual and of his or her internal dispositions.

Buddhism views immoral actions such as stealing (adinnādāna), killing (pāṇātipāta), lying (musāvāda),etc., the unwholesome (akusala) actions are mentioned in the sutta as follows: Physical (body) is Killing living beings , stealing others things and unlawful engagement in sensual pleasures, Verbal is Lying, slandering, using rough words and gossiping, and Mental is Greediness, malevolence and holding wrong views. These are related to the physical, verbal and mental behavior of people.

Anusayas which can be eliminated through wisdom, exist until one attains enlightement, Through wisdom. At the time of enlightenment one achieves internal purification and intergration of one’s internal dispositions with physical actions. The relationship between morality and wisdom is another important aspect of Budhism. The Buddha points out that morality and wisdom are interrelated and mutually activate each other.
 by Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


Buddhist Psychotherapy
ME26  11-03-2011       (4:00 to 5:00)
(Class Notes Only)
Specific Characteristics of Buddhist Psychotherapy- (i) Wide concept of humanity- seven abodes of consciousness, (ii) Clear and direct ethical path leading to a specific aim (nibbāna), (iii) Mundane benefits such as health, happiness and Social harmony are also taken into consideration along the path leading to nibbāna, (iv) Predominance of consciousness in human personality, (v) Instead of controlling external factors for mental health developing the mentality of people to face with challenges, and (vi) Ultimate mental health cannot be achieved without eradicating greed, hatred and delusion. So the real mental health means the attainment of nibbāna. Then, Fundamentals of Buddhist Psychotherapy- (i) Greed, hatred, delusion, (ii) Five groups of grasping, (iii) Morality, concentration, wisdom, (iv) Four Noble Truths, (v) Tadańga, Vikkhambhana, Samuucheda pahāna, (vi) Four kinds of food, (vii) Kamma, and (viii) Sabbāsavasutta. (hand-out)

In the Mahānidāna sutta, it gives an extended treatment of the teachings of dependent coarising (Paṭiccasamuppāda) and not-self (anaṭṭa) in an outlined context of how these teachings function in practice. The first part of the discourse takes the factors of dependent co-arising in sequence from effect to cause, tracing them down to the mutual dependency of name-and-form on the one hand, and consciousness on the other. In connection with this point, it is worth noting that the word "great" in the title of the discourse may have a double meaning: modifying the word "discourse".

The second part of the discourse, taking up the teaching of not-self, shows how dependent co-arising gives focus to this Buddha's teaching in practice. The following section is Seven Stations of Consciousness “Satta viññāṇaṭṭhiti”, there are these seven stations of consciousness and two spheres “Satta viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo, dve āyatanāni”. "There are beings with diversity of body and diversity of perception, such as human beings, some Devas, and some beings in the lower realms. This is the first station of consciousness.

"There are beings with diversity of body and singularity of perception, such as the devas of the Brahma hosts generated by the first (jhāna) and some beings in the four realms of deprivation. This is the second station of consciousness. "There are beings with singularity of body and diversity of perception, such as the Radiant Devas. This is the third station of consciousness. "There are beings with singularity of body and singularity of perception, such as the Beautifully Lustrous Devas. This is the fourth station of consciousness. "There are beings who, with the complete transcending of perceptions of (physical) form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions of diversity, (perceiving), 'Infinite space,' arrive at the dimension of the infinitude of space. This is the fifth station of consciousness.

"There are beings that, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, (perceiving), 'Infinite consciousness,' arrive at the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. This is the sixth station of consciousness. "There are beings that, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, (perceiving), 'There is nothing,' arrive at the dimension of nothingness. This is the seventh station of consciousness.

"The dimension of non-percipient beings and, second the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception” “Asaññasattāyatanaṃ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanameva dutiyaṃ.” These are the two spheres. The best way to overcome the problems is to develop morality, concentration and wisdom. With the aid of Sīla, Samādhi and Pañña, mental problems can be eliminated. In fact, such rejects are called temporary rejection ‘Tadańga’, timely rejection ‘Vikkhambhana’ and completely rejection ‘Samuccheda pahāna’. By explaining the nature of the world through Four Noble Truths, one can remove mental disease to some extent. What’s more, to attain a happy and healthy way of living, Ahara is considered as an important factor. There are four kinds of Food according to Buddhism. Mental food is more important than material foods. This is a kind of mental support. It is evident that just as material food is important, so also, mental food is essential on the way to happiness. 
This is why they are considered as vital factors of the fundamentals. Then, cause and effect theory of Kamma is also considered as a basic aspect in Buddhist psychotherapy. If one were suffered from the bad kammic action, one would not be cured. To cure that problem is to develop one’s good kamma by doing what is good. And kamma can be used as a tool to console one when in bad condition. Because of Kamma, people are different from one another not only in social status but also in education standards and so on. In the commentary on Sabbāsavasutta, it is said that Dassana and Bhāvanā are very important factors.

Through understanding and meditation, we can overcome all kinds of problems. On taking care of a patient, it is also necessary to apply behavioral therapy. It can be seen in the story of Padācārī. Then, Sila, Smadhi and Panna together with other things mentioned above, can be used as a tool of Buddhist psychotherapy. They must be used according to suitable situation. In fact, these three cannot be separated from one another. They are interrelated. In conclusion, by practicing and developing all of them methodically, one can escape from mental problems, and finally these fundamentals will lead one to the attainment of real happiness, Nibbāna.
by Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


Buddhist Psychotherapy
ME26  04-03-2011      (4:00 to 5:00)
(Class Notes Only)
Buddha has spoken of the pure and true mind as being fundamental; it is the Buddhanature, that is, the seed of Buddha-hood. In like manner, if the light of Buddha’s Wisdom is concentrated upon the human mind, its true nature, which is Buddha-hood. He holds the lens of Wisdom before all human minds and their faith may be quickened.

Often people disregard the affinity of their true minds for Buddha’s enlightened wisdom. “Once upon a time a man (puthujjanā) looked into the reverse side of a mirror and, seeing his face and head, he became ‘Insane’ (ummattakā). How unnecessary it is for a man to become insane merely because he carelessly looks into the reverse side of a mirror!” It is just as foolish and the unnecessary a person to go on suffering, because he does not attain Enlightenment where he expects to find it.

Thus, Buddha said: “Sabbī puthujjanā ummattakā”- ‘All Man is Insane’. But, strange enough, when people attain Enlightenment, they will realize that without false beliefs, there could be no Enlightenment. Buddhism examines its basic philosophical teachings and historical development, setting forth complex and significant ideas or intelligent in a straightforward and simple style that is easily accessible.

The Upaniṣadic theory of an eternal and immortal ‘self’ (atta) seems, therefore, to have been intended to satisfy this deep-seated craving of man for permanent happiness. But for the Buddha, who realized that everything in this world is impermanent, such a solution was not in the least satisfactory. While realizing that there is no permanent or immutable entity called the ‘self’, he also found that belief in such an entity led to further suffering. Inculcation of the virtue (sūsarīta) of selflessness on the basis of a belief in ‘self’ (ātman) was, according to the Buddha, neither satisfactory nor correct. This lead to the statement of the third characteristic, namely ‘non-substantiality’ or ‘no-self’ (anatta).

According to the Buddha “and centuries later, according to Freud (Psychoanalyst) also”, man’s behavior as well as his out-look on life are determined by several instincts such as ‘desire to live’ “Jīvitukāma”, “desire to avoid death’ “Amaritukāma”, ‘hankering for happiness’ “Sukhakāma”, and ‘aversion to pain’ “Dukkhapatikkūla”.

The Buddha theory that simply accords with one’s own inclinations (diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti) or one that is merely consistent or plausible (bhabbarūpa) is not true in itself. These are not the criteria of truth. Truth for him was what accords with facts (yathabhuta), not that which caters to one’s likes. The Buddha was not prepared to posit an agent or a mental substance behind the psychological process represented by such things as feeling (vedanā), perception (sañña), dispositions (saṅkhārā), and consciousness (viññāṇa). ‘I think, therefore I am’ is a conclusion to be repudiated. The heretical view put forward by a monk called “Sāti” and the Buddha’s analysis and repudiation of this heresy throw much light on the question. It is said in the Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhaya sutta that a monk named Sāti held the view that according to the Buddha’s doctrine ‘it is this consciousness which transmigrates and not an-other’.

Apart from such physical causes of Karma, there are certain motives that determine the behavior of man. Conscious motives are those such as greed or attachment (rāga or lobha), hate or aversion (dosa), and confusion (moha). A synonym of lobha (mūla) and tanhā is Abhijjhā 'covetousness', it is the eight link of the unwholesome courses of action (kamma-patha). 
A synonym of dosa (mūla) is Vyāpāda ‘ill-will,’ it is one of the five hindrances (nīvarana) and one of the ten fetters (samyojana). Generally it is evil behavior that is produced by these motives, while morally good behavior is motivated by the absence of greed (alobha), the absence of hate (adosa) and the absence of confusion (amoha). In these cases, of course the responsibility of the individual is undeniable. This is the reason why the Buddha emphasized the psychological aspect of behavior and equated Karma with volition (cetanā).

Unconscious motives are also influence behavior. Among the unconscious motives are the desire to perpetuate life “jīvitukāma” and the desire to avoid death “amaritukāma”, both of which relate to what “Freud” called the “life instinct”; and the desire for pleasure “sukhakāma” and aversion to pain “dukkhapaṭikkūla”, both of which compare with the Freudian “pleasure principle”. These motives, though unconscious, result from mistaken understanding of the nature of human existence. Hence an individual may be held responsible for behavior determined by them. The living organism is called nāmarūpa or the psychophysical personality. It becomes only when influenced by a surviving consciousness (vinnññāṇa). The psychophysical personality (nāmarūpa) would not be constituted therein.

This being the case, from birth still death, and still we did not know it, we would study to correctly know it is only the citta, cetasika and rupa which are not us, and study in further detail, since the pañña of this level cannot eradicate kilesa or rāga. The dhamma that the Buddha had manifested from his enlightenment shows his supreme pañña (wisdom), karūna (compassion) and pārisudhi (pure). Pañña would only know the names, that there are two realities. But the actual realities that are performing their functions namely the reality that is nāma-dhamma that is seeing, hearing, thinking, feeling happy or unhappy, like or unlike etc.

'There, after the bhikkhu would attain peacefulness within…' this is the satī-patthāna arising. This is a person progressing by respective levels, from the sotapanna to being the sakadāgāmī to attain level of anāgāmī, '…and the realization of the dhamma with supreme pañña. Then he should be steadfast in those very wholesome sermon (kūsala dhamma), and persevere ever more towards the eradication of the āsava.' which is to attain arahantship.
by Ashin Indaka(Kyone Pyaw)


ME23  07-04-2011      (3:00 to 4:00)
Write comprehensive notes on any (two) of the following?
After the restoration of Mireseveti stupa to its full conjectured height, the thinking changed to conservation rather than full restoration, with the aim of preserving the as found nature of the monument with minimum intervention. Hence in the repairs done at present to Jetavana, the largest stupa in Sri Lanka, rules of archaeological conservation are used. In order to identify weak zones of the stupa, finite element stress analyses were done and they showed that the stupa Dome has no tension under self weight, but the square chamber and the cylinders have some hoop tension. Hence, in the dome which was covered with vegetation, provisions to take tension is not necessary, and the surface of the dome is cleaned and a new layer of specially made bricks is added on top of old bricks. The square chamber, which has tensile regions and had undergone serious damage, requires major reconstructions with new brickwork, and reinforced concrete ring
beams and slabs are provided to take up tension.

Polonnaruva era
Beginning with the Polonnaruva era,especially during the reign of Parakramabahu I, when the sangha was reunified after its demise by south Indian Cola invaders who had demolished Anuradhapura in the late tenth century, Theravada became the exclusive form of doctrinal orthodoxy patronized by the kingship in Sri Lanka. What was not reconstituted at Polonnaruva, however, was the bhikkhunisangha, a sorority that had thrived during the Anuradhapura centuries.

Yet Polonnaruva became a marvelous city for a span of about 150 years before it was sacked by another south Indian invasion. Although its beautiful stupas could not rival the size of the Abhayagiri, Jetavana, and Ruvanvalisaya topes in Anuradhapura, the architecture, literature, and educational institutions of Polonnaruva were unparalleled anywhere in South or Southeast Asia at that time. It was also at Polonnaruva and in the courts of kings who soon followed, such as Parakramabahu II . At Polonnaruva, the Hindu temples built by the Cola invaders had not been destroyed by the reconquering Sinhalas in the eleventh century because the queens of the Sinhala kings, who were brought from: south India, were nominally Hindu, as were 3 their relations and retinues.

In this context, Gurulugomi, a Buddhist upasaka (layman), composed the first Sinhala works of prose, including the Amavatura (The Flood of Nectar), a reworking of the life of the Buddha aimed at demonstrating his powers to convert others to the truth of dharma. Since the Amavatura seems to have been written in a conscious effort to avoid using Sanskrit words, some have suggested that his writings reflect an antipathy for an ever-growing Hindu influence on Sinhala Buddhist culture in general. The late Polonnaruva era also marks the creation of many other important Sinhalese Theravada Buddhist classics.

Thuparama built by King Devanampiya Tissa after Buddhism was introduced by Arahant Mahinda Himi in the then capital city of Anuradhapura, is considered the oldeststupa in Sri Lanka, even though there are legends relating to two other stupas built during the life of Buddha. With the passage of time more stupas have been built by the kings and some, Thuparama Stupa when it was originally built was of very modest size. Thupavamsa at the very beginning, it took the shape of a heap of paddy. Today its stands, King Vasamha constructed the stupaghara.There has been four rows of stone 176 pillars around the Thuparama stupa, at one time carried the weight of a dome shaped roof over the stupa, in 1896, 31 complete pillars with capitals has been standing. This vatadagê has been built in the 1st centaury AC.

In the seventh century BC the stupa was covered with a gold and silver casing and the vatadagê with golden bricks and golden doors. Then Pandyans (south Indian Tamil) plundered the stupa of its all gold, jewels and treasures. Again Mahinda IV are installed the golden casings and the golden doors but again in the late 10th centaury Colas (south Indian Tamil) completely plundered the complex of its valuables. On the left to the stupa you can see the conserved remains of an Image house belonging to this stupa complex .The renovation of the present stupa was completed in 1862 which as completely changed the ancient features of this most ancient stupa.

Mahāthupa [ Ruvanveliseya Dagoba]
Mahāthupa(Greatthupa)stupa built by the popular King Dutugamunu during the second century BC.Today known as the Ruvanveliseya Dagaba,this is the center piece of the Mahavihara,it’s long history of guarding the traditions of Theravada Buddhism, was the most important monastery of the Anuradhapura city. It became very famous than all the other stupas. The foundation of this stupa was very firm. The King Dutugamunu is supposed to help inquired its architect concerning the shape of the stupa. Then, he built the aid of the golden bowl filled with water presented to the king, the shape of the Mahāthupa.

The Dome of this stupa was a bubble (Bubbulakara)shape and it was the most prevalent type of the stupa in the island ancient days and even up to this state. This stupa has three circular terraces built of bricks at the base. The upper terrace is smaller in the diameter than one below it. King Saddhatissa built the square structure about the Dome and also Chatra. King Amandagamili-abhaya sent to have placed the second Chatra above the one which had already existed in his style. King Sanddhatissa is sent to have provided a ring of Crystal on the top of the Mahāthupa and fixed with four gems at the four sides of the square structure. The pave platform of this stupa was surrounded by a broad procession path on all four sides. This is called the sand terrace and it is very extensive.

On top of this beautiful 'bubble' shaped Mahathupa was a ruby as big as a man's fist, and today the Burmese people have donated a rock crystal, which is 2 feet high (60cm) to replace it.
Copier-Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


ME23  05-04-2011         (3:00 to 4:00)
The Origin of Stupa
The stupa, there are various names in different country, have its own names: Tap in Korea, That in Laos, Ta in China and Pagoda in Japan ,etc,. 
Stupa is considered as the prominent architectural structure, in Sri Lanka. There are various views about the origin. The most accepted view is the stupa originated from Funeral mound. The stupa supposed to be the architectural device within a triangle that triangle is considered to be the primary plan of the stupa.Therefoer, stupa originated from this type of mounds which are raised man of soil.

The Hindu religion grow used this pole as a symbol of sacrificial important. They made sacrifices under this YUPA pole. The YUPA, pole is to be a prominent symbol.There is also a symbol of celestial trees. According to Buddhist, this is a tree which was divine and a belief had been recording the capability of a Buddha attaining the Buddha-hood under this tree. Furgoson says, India was two types of S’mashana; one was square shape, the other was circular shape. Had made stupa with the enshrine of dead body after the cremation, in India. 
According to ‘Mahāparinibbāna Sutta,’ the Buddha mentioned the four people who are the worthy of construction of a stupa. They are;
          1. Buddha
          2. Pacceka-Buddha
          3. Arahant and
          4. Cakkavatti
During the life time of the Buddha, Stupa was constructed with the arahant of Ven.Sāriputta and Moggalāna. After the Buddha passed away, instructed him to construct as stupa in the middle of four crossed roads after cremating his body.

The famous of stupas in Sri Lanka
Srilanka is many famous of stupas.They are Thuparama, Mahathupa and Mirisavetiya etc,.There are, Thuparama is the first stupa constructed in Sri Lanka. King Devānampiyatissa erected this stupa in the 250-210 B.C after Buddhism was introduced by Arehath Mahinda Himi. According to Thupavamsa at the very beginning, it took the shape of a heap of paddy. King Vasamha constructed the stupaghara. Mahāthupa was built by King Dutugamunu during the second century BC. It became very famous than all the other stupas. The foundation of this stupa was very firm and took the shape of a bubble. This stupa has three circular terraces built of bricks at the base. King Saddhatissa built the square structure about the Dome and also Chatra.

Mirisavetiya has been built by King Dutugamunu and this belong to the Mahavihara complex. But the body of the stupa still remained. This stupa is important with regard to Srilanka architectures.

Six types of patterns of Stupa
The architecture of ancient Sri Lanka displays a rich variety of architectural forms and styles from the Anurādhapūra to Kandy. There are various patterns of architecture of stupa in Sri Lanka.The following six types of patterns of Stupa,they are- Bubbulākāra (Bubble shape), Dharyākāra( Heap of paddy shape), Padmākāra(Lotus shape), Ghathākāra (Bell shape), Ghatākāra (pot shape),and Āmalākāra( Myrobalan). Therefore, the Stupas of Sri Lanka started from the very beginning take various shapes this can be considered as a beauty of architectural patterns.

The eight great deeds
There are two reasons stupas were built after the historical Buddha Sakkyamuni die; To commemorate eight great deeds accomplished,. The eight great deeds are Birth, Enlightenment, Turning of the Wheel, Miracles, Decent from Tushita, Reconciliation, Complete Victory and Parinibbāna. Therefore, the Buddhist followers were built the structure of the stupas. The structure of the stupa indicates religious important and symbol of Dhamma.

Ten steps of stupa
There are ten steps to build the structure of the stupa, they are Sand terrace, Stone terrace, Base Moulding, Three terraces, Dome, Square enclosure, Section of the deities, Spire, Pinnacle and Crest Jewel.
There are three important facts in architecture. They are-
     Esthetic value
Architectures of Sri lanka is different from India. Although we got arts and crafts from India, our architects will skillful.
Copier - Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


(Source: Encyclopedia of Buddhism)
ME23  02-04-2011      (3:00 to 4:00)
Sri Lanka is home to the world’s oldest continuing Buddhist civilization. Brahmi inscriptions etched in stone on drip ledges above natural caves in the country’s North-Central province indicate that hermitages have been dedicated by Buddhist Laity for the meditation needs of monks since the third century B.C.E. Moreover, the fourth- and fifth-century C.E. monastic chronicles, the Dipavamsa (Chronicle of the Island) and the Mahavamsa (Great Chronicle), contain a series of myths in which the Lankan king Devanampiya Tissa (third century B.C.E.), a contemporary of the Indian emperor Asoka, is said to have been converted to the Buddha’s teachings by Asoka’s own missionary son, Mahinda. Thus, from inscriptions and monastic literary traditions, it is known that by the third century B.C.E. lineages of forest monks supported by Buddhist laity were established on the island in the region that became Lanka’s political center for thirteen subsequent centuries.

Since Asoka is also thought to have provided support for Devanampiya Tissa’s abhiseka (coronation), it would seem that Buddhism became formally associated with Lanka’s Kingship by this time as well. For more than two millennia, until the British dethroned the last Lankan king in 1815, a symbiotic relationship entailing mutual support and legitimation between the Lankan kings and the Buddhist Sangha (community) was sustained, either as an ideal or in actual practice. Over the course of this long history, other forms of Buddhism joined the predominant Theravada bhikkhu (monk) and bhikkhuni (nun) sanghas, which the Mahavamsa asserts were established by Asoka’s children, Mahinda and his sister Sanghamitta, respectively,
and whose lineages were preserved by the Theravada Mahavihara nikaya. These included the cults of Mahayana Bodhisattvas such as Avalokitesvara, and the teachings of several Mahayana schools and of tantric Buddhist masters associated with Mahavihara’s rival in Anuradhapura, the Abhayagiri nikaya, which were established and thrived, particularly during the seventh through the tenth centuries C.E.
The Anuradhapura period Faxian (ca. 337-ca. 418 C.E.), the itinerant Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, has provided a valuable description of fifth-century Anuradhapura, reporting that approximately eight thousand Buddhist monks then resided in the capital city. Faxian also reports that a public ritual procession of the Dalada (tooth-relic of the Buddha) was celebrated annually, that the cult of Sri Mahabodhi (a graft of the original bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya in India) was regularly venerated and lavishly supported by the laity and the king, and that Lankan kings had built massive stupas to commemorate the Buddha and his relics.

Well before Faxian’s time and long thereafter, the city of Anuradhapura had become a politically powerful and cosmopolitan center whose successful economy had been made possible through the development of sophisticated hydraulic engineering and through the establishment of trade with partners as far flung as China in the east and Rome in the west. Furthermore, the city had become the administrative pivot of the three great monastic nikayas (chapters) of the Lankan Buddhist sangha: the Theravada Mahavihara; and the more doctrinally eclectic Abhayagiri and Jetavana chapters, each of which systematically established a vast array of
affiliated village monasteries and forest hermitages throughout the domesticated ricegrowing countryside. During the first millennium C.E., the three nikayas in Anuradhapura and their affiliated monasteries dominated every facet of social, economic, educational, and cultural life.

Some have argued that just as Lankan polity was expected to be the chief patron supporting the sangha, so the sangha functioned as a “Department of State” for the kingship. Perhaps somewhat exaggerated, that assertion does point to the extent to which Buddhist institutions became the basic social infrastructure in Lanka for many centuries.

2 Given the congenial relationship between polity and religion, the Anuradhapura period witnessed the fluorescence of an economically advanced and artistically sophisticated culture. Although the only surviving examples of painting are the frescos of heavenly maidens (perhaps apsaras) found at Sigiriya, thousands of freestanding stone sculptures of the Buddha, scores of stone-carved bas-reliefs, and hundreds of bronzes are still extant, including the famous colossal images at Avukana and the meditative Buddhas that remain within the  ruins of the Abhayagiri monastic complex at Anuradhapura. Early anthropomorphic images of the Buddha in Lanka bear a stylistic, and sometimes material, affinity with Buddha images created at Amaravati in south India, while images from the later Anuradhapura period, such as the eighth-century Avukana image, reflect the development of a distinctive Lankan style that emphasized the significance of the Buddha as a mahapurusa (cosmic person).

The Mahavamsa asserts that the Buddhist Canon (Tripitaka; Pali, Tipitaka) was first committed to writing during the reign of King Vattagamini Abhaya in the first century B.C.E. at Aluvihara just north of Matale, inaugurating, perhaps, the tradition of inscribing Buddhist texts on to ola leaves, a tradition of committing the dharma to handwriting that continued into the nineteenth century. In rare instances, texts were also inscribed on gold or copper plates, such as the gold leaves bearing an eighth-century fragment of a Sanskrit Prajnaparamita-sutra (Perfection of Wisdom Sutra), found within the massive Stupa at Jetavana in Anuradhapura in the early 1980s. In addition to the Pali Tipitaka and the Pali monastic chronicles Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa, the fifth and sixth centuries were the backdrop for the commentaries produced by Buddhaghosa.

His Visuddhimagga (Path of Purification), an elaborate and precise exegesis of sila (sila; English, morality), samadhi (meditation), and panna or prajna (wisdom) the three elemental principles of practice that Buddhaghosa regarded as the bases of the Buddha’s “noble eightfold path”-eventually became an enduring centerpiece of normative orthodoxy for Theravada in Sri Lanka and later in Southeast Asia. The Visuddhimagga stressed the interrelated and dependent nature of sila, samadhi, and panna, and the fundamental reality of paticcasamupada or Pratityasamutpada (Dependent Orignination).

The Polonnaruva era Beginning with the Polonnaruva era (eleventh through thirteenth century C.E.), and especially during the reign of Parakramabahu I (1153-1186 C.E.), when the sangha was reunified after its demise by south Indian Cola invaders who had demolished Anuradhapura in the late tenth century, Theravada became the exclusive form of doctrinal orthodoxy patronized by the kingship in Sri Lanka. It was specifically this reconstituted Theravada that was exported to Burma (Myanmar) in the eleventh century and subsequently into northern Thailand, spreading from those regions to become the dominant religion of mainland Southeast Asia. What was not reconstituted at Polonnaruva, however, was the bhikkhunisangha, a sorority that had thrived during the Anuradhapura centuries and had spread its lineage as far as China.

Yet Polonnaruva became a marvelous city for a span of about 150 years before it was sacked by another south Indian invasion. Although its beautiful stupas could not rival the size of the Abhayagiri, Jetavana, and Ruvanvalisaya topes in Anuradhapura, and although its sculpture, lacked the plastic fluidity of times past, the architecture, literature, and educational institutions of Polonnaruva were unparalleled anywhere in South or Southeast Asia at that time. The massive Alahena,: monastic university, a bastion of Theravada orthodoxy, at one time housed as many as ten thousand: monks. It was also at Polonnaruva and in the courts of kings who soon followed, such as Parakramabahu II a: thirteenth-century Dambadeniya, that new literary innovations were cultivated, in part due to the stimulus, and presence of Hinduism and Sanskrit literature, and in part due to the maturation of the Sinhala language itself.

At Polonnaruva, the Hindu temples built by the Cola invaders had not been destroyed by the reconquering Sinhalas in the eleventh century because the queens of the Sinhala kings, who were brought from: south India, were nominally Hindu, as were 3 their relations and retinues. Thus, the royal court headed by a Sinhala Buddhist king was heavily influenced by a classical Sanskritic or Hindu presence seen not only in the substance and style reflected in contemporary sections of the Culavamsa (Minor Chronicles, the sequel to the Mahavamsa), but also in the cultic life and sculptural creations of Polonnaruva, which included the veneration and depiction of Hindu deities such as Visnu and Suva.

In this context, Gurulugomi, a Buddhist upasaka (layman), composed the first Sinhala works of prose, including the Amavatura (The Flood of Nectar), a reworking of the life of the Buddha aimed at demonstrating his powers to convert others to the truth of dharma. Since the Amavatura seems to have been written in a conscious effort to avoid using Sanskrit words, some have suggested that his writings reflect an antipathy for an ever-growing Hindu influence on Sinhala Buddhist culture in general. The late Polonnaruva era also marks the creation of many other important Sinhalese Theravada Buddhist classics, including the Butsarana (Refuge of the Buddha), the Pujavaliya (The Garland of Offerings), and the Saddharma Ratnavaliya (The Garland of Jewels of the Good Doctrine), all didactic and devotional works.

Hinduization of Buddhist culture in Sri Lanka While the destruction of institutional Buddhism at Anuradhapura and the reconstruction of the sangha at Polonnaruva may have led in general to the eclipse of Mahayana and tantric cults in Lanka, invasions from south India beginning in the tenth century and the increasing numbers of military mercenaries who followed during the politically volatile thirteenth and fourteenth centuries only increased the presence and influence of Hindu cults in the Sinhala Buddhist religious culture of the era. During the fourteenth century, when a retreating Buddhist kingship established its capital in the Kandyan highlands at Gampola, Hindu deities such as Visnu, Skanda, the goddess Pattini, and Ganesha, as well as a host of other local deities associated with specific regions and natural phenomena, were incorporated into an evolving pantheon of Sinhala deities.

They were recast as gods whose warrants for acting in the world on behalf of Buddhist devotees were subject to the sanctioning of the Buddha’s dharma. The highest of these deities, worshipped within the same halls where the Buddha was worshipped or in adjacent shrines (devalayas), came to be styled as Bodhisattvas, or “buddhas in-the-making,” and a vast literature of ballads, poems, and sagas in Sinhala, some inspired by the Sanskrit puranas (mythic stories), was created to edify devotees over the ensuing several centuries. By the fifteenth century, the island had been again reunified politically by Parakramabahu VI, whose capital at Kotte on the southwest coast became the hub of an eclectic renaissance of religious culture epitomized by the gamavasi (village-oriented monk) Sri Rahula, whose linguistic dexterity (he was known as “master of six languages”) and concomitant affinities for popular religious and magical practices, refracted the syncretic character of religion at the time. Sri Rahula is perhaps ) best remembered for writing two classical Sinhala sandesaya poems styled after the Sanskrit poet Kalidasa’s Meghadhuta (Cloud Messenger) that, while glorifying the Buddha as the “god beyond the gods,” appealed directly to the gods for divine assistance in sustaining the wellbeing of the Buddhist Kingship and its administration. Vidagama Maitreya, a Wilderness monk (aranavasi) and one of Parakramabahu’s childhood mentors, wrote the Budugunalamkaraya (In Praise of the Buddha’s Qualities) as a scathing critique of the increasing Hinduization of Buddhist culture.

These two great monks, both of whom were deeply involved in competing trajectories of court and monastic cultures, represent an ancient and continuing tension regarding the nature of the monastic vocation: as a matter of caring for the “welfare of the many” (the village monk) or engaging in the “rhinoceros-like solitary life” of a forest meditator.

Colonial and postcolonial eras By the sixteenth century, the Portuguese had begun to interfere with the court at Kotte and 4 eventually converted King Dharmapala to Christianity, exacerbating an increasingly fractious political context that led in the 1590s to the establishment of a new line of Sinhala Buddhist kings in highland Kandy, a new capital city replete with a supportive cast: a bhikkhusangha whose lineage was imported from Burma, a new Dalada Maligava (Palace of the Tooth-Relic), and devalayas for the gods who had emerged as the four protective guardian deities of the island.

The Kandyans colluded with the Dutch in the mid-seventeenth century to oust the Portuguese. Despite one war in the 1760s during the reign of Kirti Sri Rajasimha, the Kandyans and the Dutch managed to coexist for a century and a half producing, in effect, distinctive highland and lowland Sinhala cultures. The former styled itself as more purely Sinhala Buddhist, despite the fact that by this time the Kandyan kings were ethnically Tamil, owing to the continuing practice of securing queens from Madurai. But it is remarkable how “Buddhacized” this last line of Lankan kings became.

Kirti Sri and his brother Rajadi who succeeded him, were responsible for the last great renaissance of Theravada: first, by reconstituting what had become a decadent sangha by introducing a fresh lineage from Thailand that became known as the dominant Siyam Nikaya; second, by appointing a monastic head (sangharaja) in the person of the learned monk Saranamkara, who reemphasized the importance of monastic literary education and moral virtue; third, by providing the means to hold a calendar of Buddhist public rites, including the still annually held asala perahara procession of the Dalada and the insignia of the guardian deities in Kandy; and fourth, by refurbishing virtually every Buddhist monastery in the kingdom, a commitment that resulted in the artistic birth of the Kandyan school of Buddhist monastery painting.

After the British established their colonial hegemony in the early nineteenth century, Buddhist culture atrophied for several decades. Its revival toward the end of the century was catalyzed in part by the establishment of two new low-country monastic nikayas, the Amarapura and the Ramanna. Both, in contrast to the Siyam Nikaya, established new lineages from Burma, claimed to be more doctrinally orthodox, emphasized the practice of meditation, and recruited novices without regard to caste. A series of public religious debates between Buddhist monks and Anglican clergy in the low country also fueled the revitalization. Moreover, the revival gained momentum with the arrival of Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907), an American theosophist who organized and established many Buddhist schools modeled on the successful missionary schools administered by the Anglicans. Olcott wrote a widely disseminated “Buddhist Catechism,” designed and distributed a Buddhist flag, and helped to organize a liturgical year celebrating full moon days as Buddhist holidays. One of Olcott’s early and enthusiastic followers, the Anagarika Dharmapala (1864-1933), transformed the religious revival into a religio-nationalist cause by founding in 1891 the Mahabodhi Society, which sought to regain Buddhist control of Buddhist holy sites in India.

In addition, Dharmapala published his influential Return to Righteousness (a detailed excursus on lay Buddhist conduct and spiritual realization aimed at purifying Buddhism of its colonial and popular “contaminations”), and he inspired the laity to emulate their colonial masters’ work ethic. Some have argued that Olcott and Dharmapala successively set into motion a new lay Buddhist religious ethic comparable to the lay-oriented religious culture of Protestant Christianity, a “Protestant Buddhism,” so called because of its emphasis on unmediated individual lay religious practice and the importance attached to integrating the significance of
spiritual teachings into everyday life.

Aside from “Protestant Buddhism,” at least three other features marked the character of Buddhism in twentieth-century Sri Lanka. The first is the reemphasis given to meditation for both monks and laypersons, especially methods of insight (Vipassana) practice made popular by Burmese masters. The second is the establishment of Buddhist-inspired welfare institutions, such as Sarvodaya, founded in the 1950s by A. T. Ariyaratne (1931-) to reawaken village culture and to stimulate rural economies and social services. The third is the increasing politicization of Buddhism in the postcolonial era, most notably the patterns that can be traced to the pivotal national elections of 1956 when S. W. R. D.

Bandaranaike (1899-1959) and his newly formed Sri Lanka Freedom Party won a landslide election on promises of “Sinhala only” as the national language and Buddhism as the state religion. This posture on language and religion (the basic constituents of 5 ethnic identity in South Asia), as well as other subsequent “Sinhala Buddhist” based education and economic policies, were enacted to redress perceived inequalities resulting from earlier British colonial policies that had favored Tamil interests and disenfranchised the Sinhalese. In turn, these changes became reasons for Tamil alienation, feeding an enduring ethnic conflict dividing Sinhalas and Tamils during the final decades of the twentieth century. In this context, some influential Buddhist monks have colluded with Sinhala politicians to resurrect the ancient rhetoric of the Mahavamsa and proclaim Lanka as the exclusive and predestined domain of the Buddhadharma. Others have marched for peace and coexistence.
Copier- Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


on Monday, June 27, 2011

Origins of Mahāyāna and the Earliest Mahāyāna Sūtras
ME06  28-03-2011      (2:00 to 3:00)
(Class Notes Only)
The earliest views of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the West assumed that it existed as a separate school in competition with the called "Hīnayāna" schools. Due to the veneration of Buddha and bodhisattvas, the schools are often divided into the three Yānas (Vehicles). These three are; the Hīnayāna, Mahāyāna and Tantrayāna. The Mahāyāna appears to have developed between the 1st Century BC, Master Nāgarjuna developed the Mahāyāna philosophy of Śūnyatāvāda (emptiness) and proved that everything is 'Void' (not only the self) in a small text called Madhyamika-karika.

Based firmly on the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna tradition, the actual philosophy differs only slightly from the Mahāyāna, but the practices can be quite different. In the 8th century, the Mahāyāna and Tantrayāna (or Vajrayāna) traditions of North Indian Buddhism, were introduced into Tibet. Vaipūlya Sūtras devoted to all Tathāgatas, the most widely used this Bhadra-kalpika Sutra, available in various languages (Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, etc.) in variants which differ very slightly as to the number of Tathāgatas enumerated. The Tibetan tradition can also be found in the Hīmalayan range of Ladakh (Northwest India), Sikkhim (Northeast India) and Nepal, and in Mongolia (which is virtually identical to the Tibetan tradition).

Earlier stage forms of Mahāyāna such as the doctrines of Prajñāpāramitā, Yogācāra and Buddha Nature. A passage there is often quoted in later Yogācāra texts as a true definition of emptiness. The development of the Vijñānavāda with the Sandhinirmochana Sutra. In the next few centuries this was followed by the very important Lankavatara sutra in the early 4th century, and the Abhisamayalankara (a Prajñāpāramitā commentary) and Avatamsaka sutras later in the century.

The Second Council took place approximately one hundred years after the Buddha's passing away, the Council was held at Vālūkārāma monastery, near the city of Veśālī to discuss some Vinaya rules, and lasted eight months. No controversy about the Dharma was reported, but some monks insisted on modifying some monk’s rules, and the orthodox monks said that nothing should be changed. Finally, a group of monks left the Council and formed the Mahāsanghīka (the Great Community). The Mahāsanghīka should not to be confused with original of Mahāyāna. The original Mahāyāna sutra large versions proved to be unwieldy they were later summarized into shorter versions, produced from 300 to 500 A.D.

Mahāyāna teaches that the practitioner will finally realize the attainment of Buddhahood.
Six perfections (pāramitā) are traditionally required for bodhisattvas:
     1. dāna-pāramitā: the perfection of giving
     2. śīla-pāramitā: the perfection on behavior and discipline
     3. kṣānti-pāramitā: the perfection of forbearance
     4. vīrya-pāramitā: the perfection of vigor and diligence
     5. dhyāna-pāramitā: the perfection of meditation
     6. prajñā-pāramitā: the perfection of transcendent wisdom
A group of ten qualities developed over many life-times by a Bodhisatta, which appear as a group in the Pāli Canon only in the Jātaka "Birth Stories": dāna(generosity), sīla(virtue), nekkhamma(renunciation), pañña(discernment), vīriya(persistence), khanti(patience), saccā (truthfulness), adhitthāna (determination), mettā (good will), and upekkhā (equanimity).

Combines with this supernormal generosity of a Bodhisattva, is his virtuous conduct (sīla). A Bodhisatta meditates on these three characteristics, but not to such an extent as to attain Arahantship, for to do this would be deviating from his goal. The Eightfold Noble Path, which is divided into the three groups of Sīla (morality), Samadhi (Concentration) and Pañña. Sīla is the basic for Samadhi, control of the mind leading to one pointed-nests. It is only when Samādi is good that one can develop Pañña. Therefore, Sila and Samadhi are the pre-requisites for Pañña.

Nekkhamma is followed by pañña (wisdom). It is the right understanding of the nature of the world in the light of impermanent nature (anicca), sorrowfulness (dukkha) and soullessness (anatta), through the practice of Vipassana, i.e. insight meditation. The meditator must first complete the Four Rupa-jhanas before undertaking the Arupa-jhanas. They are:
     1. Akasanañcayatana (Infinity of Space),
     2. Viññanañcayatana (Infinity of Consciousness),
     3. Akiñcaññayatana (Nothingness of Space),
     4. Nevasaññanasaññayatana (Neither perception nor non-perception).
Khandavibanga can be seen from such statements as:“Your reverences, just as a space that is enclosed by stakes and creepers and grass and clay is known as a dwelling, so a space that is enclosed by bones and sinews and flesh and skin is known as a material shape, feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness. Thus there is said the coming together of these five groups of grasping.”

“Phenapidupanam rūpam, vedanā pubbubūpama; Maricikupama sañña, sankhāra kadalūpama; Māyȕpamañca viññānam, desitadiccabandhunā; Yathā yathā nijjhayati, yoniso uparikkhati; Rittakam tucchakam hoti yo nam, passati yonisoti.” “Like to a ball of foam this body is: Like to a bubble blown the feeling are: Like to a mirage unsubstantial: Perception; pithless as a plantain trunk: The Activities, a plankton, consciousness. Thus declared the Kinsman of the Sun: However, one both contemplates: And thoroughly investigates its form: To him, so seeming, empty, void it is.” “atita bhavanga ‘past bhavanga’, bhavanga calana ‘vibrating bhavanga’, bhavangupaccheda ‘arrest-bhavanga’.”
By Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


Origins of Mahāyāna and the Earliest Mahāyāna Sūtras
ME06 21-03-2011      (2:00 to 3:00)
(Class Notes Only)
In the Buddhist Social Philosophy and Ethics book, now we will study Chapter 7, “The Buddhisattva Ideal” and chapter 8, “Ethics Related to Bodhisattva’s Career”. In their chapter 7, we can understand how the later Buddhist schools have attempted to develop the concepts of Buddha and Bodhisattva in different aspects, from the beginning with proud to the Pāli canon early Mahāyāna sutra develop, It includes developments of both the concepts Buddha and Bodhisattva in the Mahāsangika school, the fore-runners of later Mahāyāna tradition. We try to present all details of the development of the concepts of Buddha and Bodhisattva. Our main purpose is to evaluate the ethical system related to Bodhisattvas, and development of the concept of Bodhisattva as a basis for the evaluation of the ethics related to Bodhisattva’s career.

The Buddha is an embodiment of great compassion and great wisdom, the celebrated Pāli commentator in Sri Lanka, puts the idea into a verse. So, the concepts of Bodhisattva and his specific career can be considered as the highest ethical system in Buddhism. It is very important as far as Buddhist social ethics are concerned. Further, the Buddha and Bodhisattva concepts have been developed for the first time by the early Buddhists or Theravadins. We fine the historical and human nature of the Buddha, in some discourses of the Pāli canon, some references are given develop way. The Buddha was a historical personality who lived in India in the sixth century B.C. The human features of his early life are recorded in the Pāli canon discourses which represent an earlier period than the other Buddhist sources.

The Buddha was born as a human being, their best to construct a full biography of the Buddha with ethical and doctrinal aspects related to Bodhisattva and the Buddha. So, within the Pāli canon itself we find some facts which seem sometimes contradictory with the details given above. His personality has been developed in several aspects, Physical body, lineage, former births, and knowledge. In the Mahāparinibbāna sutta, Buddha lived a simple life, faced with troubles and illnesses, passed away at Kusināra, his body was cremated and the remains were distributed among the Kings and leaders. The Lakkhana sutta of Diganikāya mentions thirty two
special marks on the Buddha’s body. Mahāpadāna sutta presents the time, clan, Family, etc, and birth place of seven Buddha’s namely Vipassi, Sikhi, Vessabhū, Kakusandha, Konāgamana, Kassapa and Gotama. The Jātaka Pāli, one of the fifteen texts of the Khuddakanikāya explains the former livers or births of the Gotama Buddha.

Although there are many sources which explain the Buddha’s knowledge in various ways, In the Tevijja sutta, the Buddha in an exact way he should say that The Buddha is a possessor of three kinds of higher knowledge. They are Pubbenivāsanussatiñāna, Dibbacakkuñāna and Ᾱsavakkayañāna. We quote only one category of knowledge called ten powers of the Buddha.
     They are as follows:
          i. Knowledge of instance and no instance.
         ii. Knowledge of ripening of action,
        iii. Knowledge of the way that leads people of the world,
        iv. Knowledge of many and different elements,
         v. Knowledge of different dispositions by beings,
        vi. Knowledge of the state of the faculties of beings,
       vii. Knowledge of defilements, cleansing and emergence
             in the field of spiritual progress,
       viii. Knowledge of the remembrance of former existence,
        ix. Knowledge of decease and rebirth of beings, and
        x. Knowledge of the exhaustion of mental intoxicants.
In the Lakkhana sutta, “Yo Dhammam passati, so paticcasamuppādam passati”, ‘one who see the Dhamma, sees paticcasamuppāda.’ 
          1. Enijangham (Eni + jangham)
          2. Appāhāram alolupan
          3. Manimvovasmium
          4. Ehipassama Gotama (kisam viram apāharam)
The Hemāvata sutta is from the Sutta Nipāta verses 153, 180. This sutta belongs between the Dhammacakka and Anattalakkana suttas, in chronological order; it is as the former two discourses. Hemāvata and Sātāgiri describing the admirable attributes of the Buddha, Sātāgiri who was name after the Sāta mountain which was his residence, giris is a little mountains, in India, ‘Lalidagiri, Kadhagiri and Udayagiri.’ “Pura to pabbhārakāyo Manda, Khidda, Varna, balā, paññā, hāyana, vaȕka, pabbhāra, vauka, and pabbha. Pura to pabbhāra si so” As we saw, there is no complete biography of the Buddha in early sources. 
In the fifth century A.D. Buddhaghosa has presented the Theravada Biography in his commentary on Jātaka Pāli. In the first century A.D., Lalitavistara, one of the early sūtras of Buddhist biography Sarakrit describes the Buddha’s character in detail. In the Mahāsangika School, includes developments of the concepts Buddha and Bodhisattva, the fore-runners of later Mahāyāna tradition. The Bodhisattva with the arising of Bodhicitta wishes for his supreme enlightenment and the service to promote good of all beings, So, Bodhi is enlightenment and satta is beings.

When we come to the later history of Buddhism, we can notice further developments of these concepts. It is recorded that after the second Buddhist Council which was held one hundred years after the Buddha’s passing away in India, a group of monks vajjiputtaka formed a separate sect called Mahāsangika, not only the Mahāsangika. The Kathāvatthupakārana, one of the Ᾱbhidhamma Pitaka, also mentions some opinions of the nature of the Buddha held by various Buddhist schools. Some of them are given below; Andakas, Uttarā, pathakas, Vetullakas, Uttarapatakas, Theravaāda, Andakas and others, actually thousand of Buddhist schools. The Bodhisattva’s career under seven main topics. In the seven one of the gotra, the term “gotra” refers to family or clan. Gotarabhū, it is knowledge (Sawtāpatti). Gotraham, it is original development.
By Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw) 


Origins of Mahāyāna and the Earliest Mahāyāna Sūtras
ME06  07-03-2011      (2:00 to 3:00)
(Class Notes Only)
The Suṭṭa-Nipāta contains some of the oldest discourses in the Pāli Canon. It is a rich source of texts offering guidance to lay Buddhists and also abounds in suṭṭas that extol the contemplative ideals of early Buddhism. Though the Suṭṭa-Nipāta as a collection exists only in the Theravada tradition, some of the individual suṭṭas are found in other traditions. The Suṭṭa Piṭaka is the second of the three divisions of the Pāli Canon, the great Pāli collection of Buddhist writings, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism.

The First Sangḥa Council was extremely successful in the preservation of “The Word of the Buddha”. This method, the introduction of which resulted in Mahā Kassapa being called “the Father of the Dhamma” was used in subsequent years as and when required. It also led to the use of the term “Theravada” or recitation of the elders (500 of Araḥanths) being used for the Word of the Buddha. The Suṭṭa Piṭaka contains more than 10,000 suṭṭas (teachings) attributed to the Buddha or his close companions.

The First Council collected only short prose passages or verses expressing important doctrines, and that these were expanded into full length suṭṭas over the next century. This is a heterogeneous mix of sermons, doctrines, and poetry attributed to the Buddha and his disciples.

The contents vary somewhat between editions. There; “Mahāparinibbāna Suṭṭa, Mahapādāna Suṭṭa, Lakkhana Suṭṭa, Suttanipāta, Pabbajja Suṭṭa, Theragāthā, Therigāthā, Jātaka, Cariyapiṭaka and Majjhimanikāya Ariyapriyesana Suṭṭa” are various legendary Suṭṭas.

In Theravada Buddhism, the Jātakas are a textual division of the Pāli Canon, included in the Khuddaka Nikāya of the Suṭṭa Pitaka. The Jātakas are the precursors to the various legendary biographies of the Buddha, which were composed at later dates. Although many Jātakas were written from an early period, which describe previous lives of the Buddha, very little biographical material about Gautama's own life has been recorded. The Buddha and Bodhisattva concepts have been developed for the first time by the early Buddhists or Theravadins. The Buddha was a historical personality who lived in India, in the sixth century B.C.

The Jātakas were originally amongst the earliest Buddhist literature, with metrical analysis methods dating their average contents to around the 4th century BC. As we saw, there is no complete biography of the Buddha in early sources. In the fifth century A.D. Buddhaghosa has presented the Theravada Biography in his commentary on Jātaka Pāli. The Mahāsāṃghika Caitika sects from the Āndhra region took the Jātakas as canonical literature, and are known to have rejected some of the Theravada Jātakas which dated past the time of King Ᾱshoka.

The Mahāsāṃghika, literally the "Great Saṃgha", was one of the early Buddhist schools in ancient India. The Mahāsāṃghikas advocated the transcendental and super-mundane nature of the Buddha and bodhisattva, and the fallibility of arhats. The Trikāya doctrine is an important Mahāyāna Buddhist teaching on both the nature of reality and the nature of a Buddha.

Briefly, the doctrine says that a Buddha has three kāyas or bodies: the nirmānakāya or created body which manifests in time and space; the saṃbhogakāya or body of mutual enjoyment which is a body of bliss or clear light manifestation; and the Dharmakāya or Truth body which embodies the very principle of enlightenment and knows no limits or boundaries.

There are also fewer stories in general in the Vīnaya of the subsidiary school, the Mahāsāṃghika- Lokottaravada. In the formulations of some of the pātimokha rules also, the phrasing often appears to represent a clearer but less streamlined version, which suggests it might be older. This is particularly noticeable in the Bhiksuni-Vinaya, which has not been as well preserved as the Bhiksu-Vinaya in general in all the recessions. The Mahāvastu is a biography of the Buddha which attributes itself to the Lokottaravādins. The Mahāyāna tradition holds that pursuing only the release from suffering and attainment of Nirvāṇa is too narrow an aspiration. Mahāyāna Buddhism takes the basic teachings of the Buddha as recorded in early scriptures as the starting point of its teachings, such as those concerning karma and rebirth, anāṭman, emptiness, dependent origination, and the Four Noble Truths.

In the Ariyapariyesana Suṭṭa, the bodhisatta Siddhartḥa Gotama is described thus: “before my Awakening, when I was an un-awakened bodhisatta, being subject myself to birth, sought what was likewise subject to birth. Being subject myself to aging... illness... death... sorrow... defilement, I sought [happiness in] what was likewise subject to illness... death... sorrow... defilement.” The Mahaparinibbana Suṭṭa is a Theravada Buddhist suṭṭa. It concerns the end of Gautama Buddha's life and is the longest suṭṭa of the Pāli Canon. Because of its attention to detail, it has been resorted to as the principal source of reference in most standard accounts of the Buddha's passing.

The cariyāpiṭaka is a short verse work that includes thirty-five accounts of the Buddha's former lives when he as a bodhisattva exhibited behaviors known as "perfections," prerequisites to buddhahood, the Lakkhana suṭṭa of Diganikāya mentions thirty two special marks on the Buddha’s body, and Mahāpadāna suṭṭa presents the time, clan, Family, etc, and birth place of seven Buddhas namely Vipassi, Sikhi, Vessabhū, Kakusandha, Konāgamana, Kassapa and Gotama. Then, the Hemāvata sutta is as the former two discourses. Hemāvata and Sātāgiri describing the admirable attributes of the Buddha.

In which the early monks (bhikkhus) recount their struggles and accomplishments along the road to Araḥantship, in the Theragāthā of the Khuddaka Nikāya. The Therigātha of the Khuddaka Nikāya, in which the early nuns (bhikkhunis) recount their struggles and accomplishments along the road to Araḥantship. An excellent print translation of the Therigāthā is Poems of Early Buddhist Nuns. The contents of the Suṭṭa Piṭaka are attributed, with few exceptions, to the Gautama Buddha himself. Roughly comparable collections, called Nikāyas, comprise the Pāli.
By Ashin Indaka (Kyone Pyaw)


Origins of Mahāyāna and the Earliest Mahāyāna Sutras
ME06  28-02-2011      (2:00 to 3:00)
(Class Notes Only)
The talk is about the Nikāyas, the collection of the original teachings of the historical Buddha. The collection of the original teachings by the Buddha is known as the Nikāyas in the Pāli tradition, and as the Ᾱgamas in the Chinese tradition. Many years after the passing away of the Buddha, Buddhism split into different sects. Most of the records of the teachings of early Buddhism were lost with the demise of Buddhism in India. The Pāli Nīkāyas, which survived in Sri Lanka via the Theravada school of Buddhism.

Theravada means “teachings of the elders.” Theravada Buddhism is the dominant form of Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Most Buddhists in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos follow this school of Buddhism. Theravada Buddhists look to the Pali Canon of the Tripitaka. They point to Buddha himself in their belief that each person must find the way to enlightenment and Nīrvarna alone. They see Buddha as only a man. They do not worship him nor do they pray to him.

Mahāyāna means “greater vehicle.” The term implied that there were different ways to attain Nirvana. Theravada Buddhism was referred to as Hinayāna Buddhism. Hinayāna means “lesser vehicle.” Mahāyāna Buddhists believe that people need the help of others in attaining Nirvana. They rely on bodhisattvas. A bodhisattva is someone who has already become enlightened and chooses to be reborn again for this reason. The most important celestial is Avalokiteshvara. Avalokiteshvara is thought to “look down” on earth and protect people. He is the Bodhisattva of Compassion. In the Himalayan nation of Tibet. Avalokiteshvara is believed to be reincarnated in the person of the Dali Lama. Mahāyāna Buddhism spread to the northern Asia nations of China, Japan, Korea and Tibet. 

Then, the Agamas, which passed from northern India to China. Each of these contains four collections, with names carrying largely identical meanings in Pali: 
          1. Digḥa Nikāya, collection of long discourses,
          2. Majjhīma Nikāya, collection of middle-length discourses,
          3. Samyuṭṭa Nikāya, collection of themed discourses,
          4. Anguṭṭara Nikāya, collection of "increase by one" discourses.
The main difference between the Nikāyas and Ᾱgamas: All the Nikāyas are from the same school of Buddhism, which is the Theravada school. In contrast, the Chinese translators chose the collection from a different school for each Ᾱgama. There is probably a governing purpose deeper. Similar purpose: Dīgha Nikāya, (digha is"long") consists of 34 suttas, including the longest ones in the Canon: Mahāparinibbāna sutta, Mahāpadana Suttas and Lakkhana suttas, etc., and also Mahāvaga pāli, Mahākkhandhaka Pāli.

In the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta, Asura Krishna, with Krishna, the god, as little as from the fact that Buddha had very dark hair (susukalakeso) we should look upon him as in any way, "Gotamo daharo va samāno yuva susukālakeso bhadrena yobbanena samannāgato pathamena vayasā agārasmā anagāriyam pabbajito akamakanam mata pitunam assUmukhanam".

Majjhīma Nikāya, consists of 152 suttas of varying length. These range from some of the most profound and difficult suttas in the Canon to engaging stories full of human pathos and drama that illustrate important principles of the law of kamma, consisting of Ariyapariyesana Sutta (The Noble Search). This is an autobiographical account of Buddha's life after enlightenment. As Khandhakas, opens with an historical account of how the Buddha attained Supreme Enlightenment at the foot of the Bodhi tree, how he discovered the famous law of Dependent Origination, how he gave his first sermon to the Group of Five Bhikkhus on the discovery of the Four Noble Truths.

"Iti pi so bhagava araham ‘sammasambuddho’ vijjacharana sampanno sugato lokavidu anuttaro purisa dhamma sarati satta deva manussanam buddho bhagava ti".

Anguttara Nikaya, consists of several thousand short suttas. Khuddaka Nikāya, consisting of fifteen books (eighteen in the Burmese edition), they are-
          1. Suṭṭa Nipāta (The Sutta Collection)
          2. Buddḥavamsa (History of the Buddhas)
          3. Apādāna (Stories)
          4. Cariyāpitaka (Basket of Conduct)
          5. Udāna (Exclamations)
          6. Jātaka (Birth Stories), etc.
The Sutta Nipata, the fifth book of the Khuddaka Nikāya, consists of 71 short suttas divided into five chapters (vaggas). There are, consisting of Pabbaja Sutta, King Bimbisara, struck by the young Buddha's radiant demeanor, follows him to the mountains to discover who he is and whence he comes. Hemavata Sutta is really a short piece. In fact, it is the second of the discourses of the Buddha, for it was delivered just afer the Dhammacakka Sutta, the Buddha’s first discourse. The Hemavata Sutta, which was delivered on the night of the same day as the Dhammacakka Sutta. The Sutta Pitaka, the second division of the Tipitaka, consists of
more than 10,000 suttas and shortly after the Buddha's forty-five year teaching career, as well as many additional verses by other members of the Sangha.

In the Lālita Sutta: “Evam me sutam, Ekam samayam Bhagavā Bârânasiyam viharati Isipatane Migadâye Me evamsutam. Ekam samayam Bagavâ Bârânasiyam Isipatane Migadâye viharati.” The Lālita Vistara differs a good deal in minor details, but is substantially the same as regards the Noble Truths, and the eight divisions of the Noble Path. It would be difficult to estimate too highly the historical value of this Sutta. The name given to it by the early Buddhists the setting in motion onwards of the royal chariot-wheel of the supreme dominion of the Dhamma. According to Mahāyāna, this Lālita Suttra is 800 years old.
By Ashin Indaka(Kyone Pyaw)


on Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Logical Reasoning
ME39  03-03-2011      (3:00 to 4:00)
(Class Notes Only)
On Knowledge of Beginnings, the Aggañña sutta provides a detail description of the origin of the human kind and the planet earth. At the beginning known as world contraction, the human ancestry started with the living beings born from the Abhassara Brahmas. After some long period feeding on the earth soils, the Brahma lost their body radiance and slowly changed in their body features. Then, the sun and moon started to appear in the firmament to start day and night time on earth. Then, everyone looks the same; there was no gender, only asexual.

Later, after some long period, sex organs were formed on their body. And the women became excessively preoccupied with the men, and the men with the women. Owing to this excessive preoccupation with each other, passion was aroused, and their bodies burnt with lust.

And later because of this burning, they indulged in sexual activity. Trees appeared and rice was available freely. This description of the beginning of mankind is so different from the modern theory of human evolution.

The Lord Buddha was staying at Sāvatthi in the mansion of Migara’s mother, in the East Park. And at that time Vasettha and Bharadvaja were living among the monks. They went up to the lord. Then the lord said to Vasettha: “brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā- the Brahmin caste is fair, other castes are dark,” “the Brahmins are the true children of Brahma,  born from his mouth- brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā.” Then, Vasettha, we can see Brahmin women, the wives of Brahmins, “Dissanti kho pana, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇānaṃ brāhmaṇiyo utuniyopi gabbhiniyopi vijāyamānāpi pāyamānāpi- who menstruate and become pregnant, have babies, and give milk.” These Brahmins misrepresent Brahma, tell lies and earn much demerit.

The brahmins claimed that among the four classes of people recognised at that time brahmins were the noblest; next came the khattiya class (the nobility and royalty) followed by vessa (the trading class) and sudda (the lowest class). The Buddha refuted these claims of the brahmins by explaining how the world was subjected to processes of evolution and dissolution and describing how human beings first appeared on earth and how the four social classes emerged. He explained further that the nobility of a person was decided not by his birth and lineage but by his morality and knowledge of the Noble Truths.

"Whoever holds wrong views and commits misdeeds is not noble whatever his birth.
Whoever restrains himself in deed, word and thought and develops the bodhipakkhiya dhammas until he attains complete eradication of defilements in this very life is the chief, the noblest amongst men and devas irrespective of birth." Another good point was made in the same thread by son of dhamma, who said, "I don't consider that the world being talked about in the Aggañña Sutta is 'the universe'.

The Kevatta Sutta is a Buddhist scripture, one of the texts in the Digha Nikaya. The scripture takes its name from the householder Kevatta, who invites the Buddha to display various miraculous powers in order to show his spiritual superiority. The Buddha responds by expressing his belief that supernatural powers are not a valid measure of spiritual development, because they can be falsified through the use of charms and spells. In the First time: The Lord Buddha explains the various psychic powers that a monk can have..., a monk becomes many, and then becomes one again, he vanishes and re-appears, goes through walls, ramparts and mountains, dives in and out of earth, walks on water, flies through the air (pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhdhātu), with his hand touches and strokes the sun and the moon (!), and can reach even as far as the Brahma divine worlds He goes on to deliver a discourse on virtue, expressing the belief that it is virtuous conduct, rather than supernatural developments, that display the superiority or spiritual development of a teacher. He also states that such practices will give rise to powers greater than those available to practitioners of traditional magic and austerities.

The scripture is significant to the study of Buddhism because it constitutes one of the clearest statements in the scriptures of the Buddha's opposition to the notion of magical power and supernatural abilities as the best indicator of truth or virtue. In setting out such a belief, the Buddha placed himself in opposition to much of the popular religious traditions derived from the Vedas, which often focused on the acquisition of supernatural powers as an ends unto itself, and as a means of measuring spiritual worthiness.

The second one is obtained through logical inference. Sandaka Sutta indicates a difference between what is “well reasoned” (sutakkitam) and “ill reasoned” (dutakkitam) Suttanipãta admonishes that one should desist from the debate as it lures one to make use of falsehood. In the Pāli texts, we frequently find Buddha dissociating himself from this class of rationalists and criticizing views which are said to be based on different forms of reasoning and reflection. In the Saṅgārava Sutta, the consistency is no guarantee of their factual truth. Thus
with regard to rational theories there are four possibilities:
     1. sutakkitaṃ tathā i.e. well-reasoned true
     2. sutakkitaṃ aññathā i.e. well-reasoned false
     3. duttakkitaṃ tathā i.e. ill-reasoned true
     4. duttakkitaṃ aññathā i.e. ill-reasoned false
In the first scripture, Nyaysutra of Nyay Darshan, there are five chapters. Akshapad Gautam is the originator of Nyay Darshan. Nyaysutra is purely methodological in nature. This is the seventh material recognized in Nyay Darshan. It assists estimation. It has five kinds-
(i)    Pratigya (Determination), 
(ii)   Hetu (Middle term), 
(iii)  Udaharan (example), 
(iv)  Upanaya (comparing) and 
(v)   Nigaman (conclusion). Early Buddhist scriptures introduce two kinds of knowledge i.e. Dhamme ñana which refers to knowledge of things or events and anvaye ñana or inductive knowledge. The first one is none other than experimental knowledge.
by Ashin Indaka(kyone Pyaw)